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I am not afraid of heights, I'm afraid of falling.

science week 1

Science Review

By Joona

I learned about radios. Radios can control electrons. With a two way radio you can send and receive radio waves. Different radio waves have different frequencies, energy levels, and different wave lengths. Electromagnetic radiation can travel through space. Electromagnetic radiation is energy. The magnetosphere helps life on earth live. The magnetosphere is a force field made by electric currents in earth’s core. Hertz is the measurement for frequency. Ultraviolet radiation can ruin DNA. Ultraviolet radiation are harmful rays. That is why you get sunburn when you stay outside too much.

There are three different ways radio waves can travel. Line of sight, ground wave and sky wave. There are four different types of radio propagation. Pulsating, direct, variable, and alternating. Alternating would be what would power your house. Direct would come from a battery. Line of sight is a direct radio wave transmission between a transmitter and a receiver. Ground wave is a wave that travels over ground. The radio wave bends as it travels. The propagation increases if the wave goes over water. Sky waves are radio waves bouncing around earth by waves reflecting on the ionosphere and earth. The ionosphere is the lower layer of the magnetosphere and the upper layer of the atmosphere. The ionosphere has lots of ions being made in it by, photons and cosmic rays ramming into the magnetosphere which makes atoms and molecules lose electrons which makes ions. This is information that I have learned in this first week of science.

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History week 36 review

History week 36 review

Favorite lesson/s this year.

My favorite lessons this year were the lessons on the Vikings. We learned about the Viking culture, Erik the Red, and Leif the Lucky. Why learning about the Vikings was fun for me is that the Vikings, I think, were actually fascinating people. Did you know that in war the Vikings actually didn’t wear horned helmets? That was suprising to me because always in books and stories it talks about horned helmets. The Vikings are always called barbarians, but they were civilized when they were home, still most everyone thinks that the Vikings had no manners and were barbaric, that is a misconception. Also, the thought that the Vikings just used big double sided axes is a misconception, that is because it is very easy to hurt yourself with double sided weapons especially when the weapon is large.

What I liked most about this year is that we didn’t stick to one location’s history all year. We talked about different cultures and learned about different people. I think it is boring to just learn about one place’s development all year. I liked that we skipped around, and didn’t stay learning about one subject too long.

History week 35 review

History week 35 review


Africa is probably the most diverse continent on Earth. It contains most all climates except frozen tundra. The Nile River, the longest river in the world, is located in Africa and runs through several old civilizations. Egypt was the strongest and most well known of the ancient African civilization. Egypt was ruled by pharaohs for most of its existence. The country was an agricultural country based around the Nile. Egypt was eventually conquered by the Persian empire but it then regained its freedom. Egypt was conquered again by the Romans in 31BC and remained under Roman rule until Rome fell in 476 AD. After the decline of Rome, Egypt took on a new and quickly spreading religion, Islam.

Nubia was located south of Egypt on the Nile and it was also another old country. It is known for trading with Arabia and the Mediterranean civilizations. Nubia began the art of iron working. It remained independent from Egypt after the rise of Rome, but declined in power after 400 AD.

Ethiopia, started around 500 BC, and was built up by trade on the Red Sea coast. It was originally an Arab style country, but eventually integrated elements of Greek and Egyptian culture into theirs. The country became strong and rich during the first century due to a strong line of kings.

Over the 1,250 years after 500 AD, Africa slowly developed some more tribal nations, but mostly stayed a decentralized continent. Beyond the tribal nations, the European nations began establishing colonies around the coastal regions to harvest the rich natural resources, and to promote slave trade.

From the colonization days to today, Africa people have been trying to gain their independence from outsiders, while still needing their advice and support to advance from the third world status.

History week 34 review

History week 34 review

William Willberforce

William Willberforce was a British politician, philanthropist, and a leader to abolish slavery. The British joined the slave trade in the 1500’s. By 1783, the triangle trade route made about 80% of England’s foreign income. At its peak, England was the greatest shipper of slaves and supplied Britain, French, Spanish, Dutch, and Portuguese colonies with slave labor. William Willberforce began his political career in 1780, becoming a member of Parliament for Yorkshire. He was converted to Christianity in 1785, resulting in major change of lifestyle and search for reform.

Two years later, some anti-slave activists told Willberforce about their mission and he began to help the anti-slavery cause. This group which is known as the Testonites supported and helped Willberforce in his fight. Despite positive reactions from some, the anti-slavery group went through many struggles in Parliament. Willberforce’s Christian principles gave him power to drive on.

Olaudah Equiano was a former slave, kidnapped as a child and forced to endure the hard trip to the New World. While a slave in England he learned to read and write, and through much hard work and saving he bought his freedom. Even as a free man Olaudah Equiano was often mistreated, he even got caught again by another slave trader, Luckily Olaudah escaped. Olaudah wrote an autobiography that described his life. His book became a best seller and was translated into many different languages. Olaudah met with Willberforce and encouraged him with his fight to abolish slavery.

One of Willberforce’s friends, William Pitt, became prime minister and introduced the anti-slavery motion to Parliament in 1788. Pitt died in 1806, without the motion being passed. In 1806, William Willberforce tried a new tactic, which was the right approach to convince Parliament. His idea made the Foreign Slave Trade Bill. This bill was passed in 1806. The bill would treat any one flying the American colors as enemies. Since many slave traders flew the American colors the bill put a stop to most of the slave trade.

Lord Grenville, a supporter of Willberforce, then introduced a complete abolition bill to the House of the Lords, which passed. After the bill passed the House of Lords, it was reintroduced to the House of the Commons, where it also passed. The Slave Trade Act was ratified on March 25, 1807 ending slavery in Great Britain.

History week 33 review

History week 33 review

The Acts of Union.

The Acts of Union were two acts passed by English Parliament that combined England and Scotland into Great Britain. The Parliament of England passed the Union with Scotland Act in 1706. The Parliament of Scotland passed the Union with England Act in 1707. These two countries had separate governments for much of their history, but in 1603, they came under the same monarch. James VI of Scotland was the closest heir to Elizabeth I of England, and thus the kingdoms were bound. However, while under one monarch they each had separate Parliament and didn’t want to be joined into one nation.

There were three attempts to join the countries in 1606, 1667, and 1689 by Acts of Parliament, however, every time it was discouraged by one side or another. When Queen Anne became queen in 1702, one main goal was to create a Union treaty between England and Scotland. Finally in 1706, both sides had reasons to join forces, and work out their differences. Scotland had long wanted to stay free from England, due to the free spirited people. England had many times tried to take Scotland by force, but it didn’t work. So in 1706 they combined because each country had enough to gain from the union.

The Treaty of Union was made official in 1707, and combined the two countries into Great Britain. Of the 25 articles of the document, 15 were related to economics. Queen Anne remained the monarch, but the two Parliaments were made into one.

English week 28 review

English week 28 review


Macbeth” a play by Shakespeare starts with Macbeth and Banquo returning from a successful battle, when they come across three witches. The witches say that Macbeth will become first the Thane of Cawdor, and then King of Scotland. Soon after they met the witches a man comes and tells Macbeth that he is Thane of Cawdor. Macbeth tells Lady Macbeth what happened.

Soon though Macbeth wants to be king. He tells his wishes to Lady Macbeth, and she says that maybe he could murder King Duncan. After a feast with the King one night, Macbeth slips into the King’s chambers and murders the King. In the morning when the King is found dead and Macbeth blames it on the King’s two guards. The King’s two sons flee the country thinking that they next might be killed. Macbeth then becomes king.

He learns that his friend Banquo is suspicious of him and is going to flee the country with his son, so Macbeth sends three murderers to go kill Banquo and his son. The three murderers kill Banquo but his son gets away. Macbeth during his feast sees Banquo’s ghost and gets scared. He asks the three witches what the ghost means. One witch says to beware of Macduff and another says not to fear until the Great Woods of Birnam rise up against him. Macbeth is comforted and sends the three murderers after Macduff. But Macduff has fled so Macbeth has them kill Lady Macduff and Macduff Jr.

While that is happening, in England, Malcolm (one of King Duncan’s sons) and Macduff are planning revenge. They gather an army to fight Macbeth. On their way every man in the army cuts branch from the Great Woods of Birnam to mask their numbers. Then they attack Macbeth. Macduff challenges Macbeth to a sword fight and kills Macbeth. Then Malcolm becomes the king.

English week 26 review

English week 26 review

Comparison of Tom, Huck, and Aunt Polly.

In the book “Tom Sawyer” by Mark Twain Tom, Huck, and Aunt Polly are all fairly different.

Tom is mischievous and runs away a lot. He has a loving family member and he goes to school. He is very adventurous and it seems like he likes to get into trouble. He gets beaten a lot and gets into some bad situations. He is independent and all the boys in town want to be like him. The moms don’t like him because he sets a bad example. He smokes, lies, swears and, when he gets in trouble and has to work, he gets the other boys to do the work for him.

Huck has no mother, and his father is a drunkard. He sometimes steals stuff to eat and fends for himself. He doesn’t go to school and he doesn’t follow any rules. He is independent and loves just living a carefree life and just hanging out. He does not like acting civilized and when he is taken in to a home, he runs away, but then Tom convinces him to go back.

Aunt Polly is Tom’s aunt. She is civilized and pretty strict. She is respectable and is responsible for Tom. She wants the best for Tom, but he always runs away. She is tidy and has proper behavior, she loves Tom, and beats him out of love, and hopes he is successful in life.

History week 29 review

History week 29 review

Divine Right of kings

Due to the “Divine Right of Kings” many Kings of England became very selfish. The kings thought they could do whatever they wanted. Charles I, due to the rights, became a tyrant which made a civil war between Parliament and the king. The kings would do stuff good for them, not others. The country was often in disorder because of the fighting and turmoil. People would pick sides for the fighting. Eventually Charles I was beheaded and the country was at peace for a while. But when Oliver Cromwell’s son took over as lord protector he was overrun by Charles’s son, and then there was more turmoil. In all the “Divine Right of Kings” was not good for the country of England because the kings would become tyrants and then the people would fight the king.

History week 32 review

History week 32 review

Life in the colonies.

Cities and Government

Most cities were organized as harbor towns or seats of government in the 13 colonies. The largest cities were the ones organized around harbors. Harbors were important because most of the cities and colonies relied on trade with England. Important features of any city were church buildings, government buildings, open squares, grid-like street pattern, market, tradesmen section, and houses. The government in most colonies was divided into two parts, the Governor’s council and The House of Burgesses. The Governor’s council was a group of advisers appointed by the governor to help him run the colony. The House of Burgesses was made of representatives elected by the people to serve for a set time period. Each had there own wing of a building and could meet in a connecting hall for a general assembly.


There were many things a person could do for a job. Barber, blacksmith, cabinetmaker, clock maker, cobbler, cooper, doctor, farmer, grocer, miller, hatter, sailor, silversmith, tailor, tanner, and wig maker. These weren’t all the jobs this is just a little list.


Where a family lived made a big difference to their living condition. Some people were wealthy and some were poor. Home life was a lot different than today, back then they didn’t have plumbing and electricity. Early homes would have just one room called a keeping room. The family would sleep, cook, eat, bathe, and live in that one room. Sometimes people would have to make their house bigger so they would add an extension. These houses were called saltbox houses because they looked like salt boxes. In the house they would not have much furniture. They would mostly have a few beds, a table, a spinning wheel, maybe a few barrels, a few chairs, and maybe a chest or two.


The colonist ate whatever they could eat. They might have squash, corn, fruits and vegetables, bean porridge, and fish or meat. Everyone drank cider, beer, milk, and water.

Childhood and Growing Up

Growing up during this time was different than today. Still kids nowadays, and back then, have quite a bit in common, like playing games, helping with chores, and learning how to grow up. A kid was considered a baby until they turned six. At that age they were given big kid clothes and were sent to dame school, they also help with chores. Girls got dresses and aprons, and boys got shorts or pants with a long shirt. The children helped around the house, took care of pets, and did the dishes. Because they did not have modern conveniences they had to fetch water and other thing that we don’t have to do today. At dame school they would learn to read. After dame school most boys, and some girls, went to better schools and learned math, writing, and rhetoric. Some boys would get an apprenticeship. This is where they learn a trade from a tradesman in exchange for room and board. Often when the tradesman retired the apprentice would get his shop. It wasn’t all work, the kids would play games in their free time. A girl would be grown up once she was married, and moved out of the house. A boy grew up when he could support himself in a career. Mostly men went to college, but some women too. When most people graduated college they were younger than 18.

Colonists had to work for things that we buy at the store every day. Clothes, food, and houses had to be made by every family that came to the colonies.

History week 31 review

History week 31 review

Jonathan Edwards

The most recognized name in America from the Great Awakening is Jonathan Edwards. Edwards was born in 1703, the son of a minister and a minister’s daughter. He was educated by his father and older sisters, and by the age of 13 he was ready to attend Yale College. Edwards was influenced by the enlightenment mindset that was developing in this time and enjoyed studying natural sciences.

Edwards graduated Yale at the top of his class, returning in the following years to be a tutor. In his last year of college, Edwards had a conversation experience that would fuel his passion for the rest of his life. During this time, he came to understand the doctrine of of limited atonement, which had previously frustrated him.

Edwards lived a very strict life, not allowing himself to waste time, and he kept high morals. He was ordained as a minister in 1727, and two years later became a full time minister, studying 13 hours a day. He married Sarah Piermont in that same year, and the two had a happy life and 11 children together.

In 1732, Edwards preached a sermon in Boston on the absolute sovereignty of God. By 1733, a revival had broken out in support of his doctrine, and 300 new members joined his church. Edwards did not speak as loudly and fiercely as others in his time, but his passion still showed in his sermons.

The first wave of the Great Awakening actually ended darkly. The messages of damnation and hell did not all contain hope which led some people to despair or suicide. The revival did return though, and in 1741 Edwards preached his most famous sermon, “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God.”

In the later years of his life, Edwards took in needy people and preached to the Indians. In 1758, Edwards was injected with a vaccine for smallpox which killed him. Edward’s life, works, and dedication to his calling make him an inspiration to many today.

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