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I am not afraid of heights, I'm afraid of falling.

science week 1

Science Review

By Joona

I learned about radios. Radios can control electrons. With a two way radio you can send and receive radio waves. Different radio waves have different frequencies, energy levels, and different wave lengths. Electromagnetic radiation can travel through space. Electromagnetic radiation is energy. The magnetosphere helps life on earth live. The magnetosphere is a force field made by electric currents in earth’s core. Hertz is the measurement for frequency. Ultraviolet radiation can ruin DNA. Ultraviolet radiation are harmful rays. That is why you get sunburn when you stay outside too much.

There are three different ways radio waves can travel. Line of sight, ground wave and sky wave. There are four different types of radio propagation. Pulsating, direct, variable, and alternating. Alternating would be what would power your house. Direct would come from a battery. Line of sight is a direct radio wave transmission between a transmitter and a receiver. Ground wave is a wave that travels over ground. The radio wave bends as it travels. The propagation increases if the wave goes over water. Sky waves are radio waves bouncing around earth by waves reflecting on the ionosphere and earth. The ionosphere is the lower layer of the magnetosphere and the upper layer of the atmosphere. The ionosphere has lots of ions being made in it by, photons and cosmic rays ramming into the magnetosphere which makes atoms and molecules lose electrons which makes ions. This is information that I have learned in this first week of science.

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Week 8 review 8th grade History

Week 8 review 8th grade History

The life of Napoleon Bonaparte

Napoleon is considered one of the world’s best generals. He was, more than just a general though. His presence in France during their revolution helped stabilize the country. Napoleon was born in 1769, on the island of Corsica. During his childhood he studied military tactics, thus when he went to military school at the age of 15, he graduated as second lieutenant in the artillery.

After the Reign of Terror, Napoleon was in prison for 11 days before he was released. The Directory which ruled France then had Napoleon promoted to General of the Army of the West. In 1769-1799, Napoleon had good string of successful military campaigns, making France stronger. This made him popular and more powerful. In 1799, he went back to check how politics were going. They were going bad so he decided to take over. He wrote a new constitution and held an election for Emperor. Napoleon became the Emperor, and was anointed by the Pope.

While Emperor he was almost always on the move. He moved from one place to another making alliances and defeating enemies. By 1810, France was the dominating power in Europe, though it didn’t have a good footing. Finally matters came to notice in 1814, the Senate, the governing body under Napoleon, declared the Empire to be ended. He had to give the throne to Louis XVIII. Napoleon was exiled to the island of Elba, while his son and wife fled to Vienna. Though he escaped exile in 1814 and got a following, he fought his final battle at Waterloo, where he got defeated by the British-Prussian forces whose commander was Duke Wellington. He again went into exile and died while in exile on May 5, 1821.

Week 8 review 8th grade English

Week 8 review 8th grade English

Should we complain to get what we want?

Should we complain to get what we want? It really depends if you worked hard to get it, and your age.

In my opinion in some cases it can be good to complain, but other places not. It really depends on if its a necessity or a desire that you are complaining about. If it is a necessity then I think it would be fine. One example of this, is a baby who complains and cries to get food, but if the same baby complains to get a toy, that is not fine. The baby example isn’t very good, because they get practically everything they want. So, here is another example, a 12 year old boy lives with his mom and dad. They have money, but they just spend it on their selves and the boy has little to eat. In this case I think it would be good to complain for food, because you might get some. But if this boy wasn’t starved and lived a normal life, and he complained to get a remote control car his parents won’t buy him. Instead of complaining he should work to get money, so he could buy it. If this boy had earned the money, and then was going to buy this car, his parents said he could get, but at the last moment say no. I would see the sense in complaining and arguing in this case, because you had earned the money, and were looking forward to the car, and then all of a sudden you can’t buy it.

In conclusion I think it all goes back to your age, if you had permission to get it and then can’t, or if you worked hard to get it.

Lesson 105 review 8th grade Science

Lesson 105 review 8th grade Science

The locations of our Sun and Earth are, such that it makes Earth perfect for life. The place in which our Sun is in the Milky Way Galaxy is the perfect place. If it were to be farther towards the center of the galaxy we wouldn’t be able to live, due to, too much radiation. Also, because we are 2/3 of the way out toward the edge of our galaxy, we are unlikely to collide with other stars. Another benefit to where our Earth is placed, is that it makes space observation possible.

The Earth is also placed in just the right place in our solar system. It not too close to the Sun, but not too far away either. Jupiter helps protect Earth by attracting large rocks that could hit Earth. The Moon also protects us, because if the Moon wasn’t there we may have been hit by the many objects that have hit the Moon. The Moon keeps the Earth stable, it prevents Earth from tilting too far away from the gravity of the Sun or Jupiter.

In all we can be thankful that the universe was created how it was, otherwise we might not be living today.

Lesson 97 review 8th grade Science

Lesson 97 review 8th grade Science

The Sun

The Sun is in the center or our solar system. All planets in our solar system orbit the sun. The Sun is more than 99% of the mass in our solar system. It would take more than 1 million Earth’s to equal the Sun’s volume.

The Sun is made up of 98% hydrogen and helium. Only 2% is made of heavy elements such as metals. The Sun is kind of like Earth, in the way that they both have cores and other layers. The Sun’s layers are the Core, Radiative zone, Convective zone, Photosphere, and then its many atmospheric layers. One layer of Sun’s atmosphere the Corona creates the solar wind which blasts against the Earth’s magnetosphere.

Week 7 review 8th grade English

Week 7 review 8th grade English

What gives more pleasure? The pursuit of our desires or the attainment of them.

In my opinion they are both the same. One example is a story of me wanting to get an airsoft gun. A few months ago I wanted to get an airsoft gun but I had no money to get one. So I found a person to work for the day. When I got there I helped carry things and organize stuff. I found this fun and we had a good time. After I was done working and had gotten money, I had to find a gun. This I had pleasure in. There was many different types of guns and it was fun finding the right one. The one thing I don’t like is the waiting to get the gun, because you aren’t active towards getting it. Once I got the gun I also had pleasure of playing with it.

In all I don’t really know which one gives more pleasure. I guess it just depends on if you are a patient person or not. I am not very patient so for me I think I have more pleasure attaining my desire.

Though at times it may be more fun getting to a place than to get there. An example of this is if you are going to drop off your friends at a destination. In this way it is more fun getting there because you have your friends with you, but then once you drop them off it gets boring.

In all, it just depends on you personality, how you think, and what you need or desire.

Week 7 review 8th grade History

Week 7 review 8th grade History

Pinckney’s Treaty, XYZ Affair, Quasi War

Pinckney’s Treaty, singed in 10/27/1795, was a treaty with Spain that defined the US.’s borders, and the US. gained the Mississippi Territory in this treaty. We already had peaceful relations, but it helped ensure good relations.

Next is the XYZ Affair, France’s relationship with the US., due to the Jay Treaty weren’t good. So the US. had sent Charles Pinckney, John Marshall, and Elbridge Gerry, to France to work out a peace agreement. They met with Talleyrand( a French man) to negotiate. The French however said they would have to pay a bribe to have peace. The American men refused. After a year, Talleyrand only liked to talk to Elbridge Gerry, and started leaving the other two men out of negotiations, eventually he asked Pinckney and Marshall to leave. Thus Pinckney and Marshall returned to the US. to give President John Adams their reports. Adams tried to keep the news a secret, however the Democrat/Republicans wanted a public release, but they didn’t know what was in the reports. Adams made the reports public and it ruined the relations with France.

The report talked above resulted in the Quasi War. The War was between the US. and France, but it was never officially declared. The war lasted 2 years, but neither side liked it. The war was all naval and it came to an end in 1800 due to the Convention of 1800.

Week 6 review 8th grade History

Week 6 review 8th grade History

The Declaration of Independence

The Declaration of Independence was officially adopted on July 4, 1776. After it had been passed by the Continental Congress two days before. Thus it is July fourth that we celebrate our independence. The Declaration declared independence from Britain and stated the colonies grievances. The Declaration is made up of a few parts. These are, the Preamble, the Body, and the Conclusion. The Preamble is the introduction and gives a prelude to the grievances. The Body says the grievances the colonies have against Britain. Some of the grievances were such as the Quartering Act and the Navigation Acts. The conclusion sums it all up, and then it was signed by all the delegates. It influenced the public to help fight for independence, so then after the Revolutionary War we got our independence.

Week 5 review 8th grade History

Week 5 review 8th grade History

American war for independence

The first battles of the War were the battles at Lexington and Concord. Paul Revere and William Dawes warned the colonists of the British coming. A skirmish took place at Lexington where militia gathered. The shot heard around the world was fired in Lexington. After Lexington the British went to Concord, they found weapons and took them, and then destroyed the cannons. The colonists waited for the British to leave, and then the British all of a sudden fired on them, and the colonists fought back. The colonists drove the British all the way back to Boston.

That started the siege of Boston, which the created the Battle of Bunker Hill. The colonist dug trench works on the hill, and when the British attacked, the colonists inflicted heavy losses on the British, but were eventually pushed back. The British lost many men, but the colonists didn’t lose very many. This was a major accomplishment because the colonists learned that they could hold ground against the British.

The colonists tried to work out a treaty with Britain in 1775, but it was refused so the war continued. In the winter of 1775, Benedict Arnold led an army into the north and had many victories, and captured forts and supplies. The battle of Valcour Island proved the colonists could equal the British in naval battles. By July 1776, the Declaration of Independence had been written and the US separated from Britain.

The colonists had a good start to the war but the British had a comeback. The British regained control of Boston, New York, and Philadelphia. The only good thing for the colonists was the victories at Trenton and Princeton. These both were good battles, but Saratoga was the turning point. In 1777, 5700 British solidiers surrendered at Saratoga.

The British then moved to fight more south. They captured Savannah and Charleston, and won at Camden. After the battle at Camden Nathaniel Greene forced the British to travel lightly, by using guerrilla tactics. This wore them down as they needed supplies and reinforcements. The British had to retreat to Yorktown to wait for reinforcements. But after the battle of Capes they surrendered.

The Treaty of Paris was signed in 1783, and declared the US a sovereign nation.

Week 6 review 8th grade English

Week 6 review 8th grade English

Apple Pie

Apple pie has long been thought as the most American dessert, and it still is. I think this is, because many Americans love pie. It is a very good dessert and has been around for a long time. I also think that it also may have do with the reason that, a person can buy apple pie practically at any store or restaurant. Another thing that is in favor of apple pie is that it doesn’t require a ton of ingredients. One down side though is that it takes 40-50 minutes to make at home. Another reason apple pie is American is that in the 19th and 20th centuries, it became a symbol American prosperity and national pride. This also could have been helped along from the soldiers of World War II which would say, “for mom and apple pie.”

If I had to choose a dessert to be the most American dessert, I would pick cheese cake. This is because there is the famed New York cheese cake, and also I love cheese cake. There are many types of cheese cakes and it is also an American favorite.

In all apple pie is the most American dessert, but cheese cake is also a favorite and I think that if there wasn’t apple pie I think cheese cake might be the most American dessert.

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